It may, however, be argued that if a comprehensive, long term, view is taken of leadership competence - which would include personal attributes, technical/ professional competencies, values and attitudes, and conduct - toxic leaders are incompetent because they are not competent across all domains of a well rounded leader. The premise of this article is that the more comprehensive view of leadership competence should be taken. Thus toxic leadership, regardless of their level of technical/ professional competence, implies incompetence. »
Emergence is “a sudden, unpredictable change event produced by the actions of mechanisms” (Marion, 2008, p. 9). It is a type of naturally occurring change and subsequent stabilization into a new order that is “free” – meaning that it does not require external energy to happen. It can result in dissipative structures. When complex systems are dynamically interacting, they often generate many low-intensity emergent changes; occasionally they experience a high-intensity change. These changes are different than those which arise through steady, step-by-step trajectories from known beginnings through predictable outcomes. Emergence arises through interaction and energic pressure as opposed to the actions of any lone individual. It is the dynamic actions of mechanisms that generate it, rather than the constant, predictable effect of variables.
Nearly two-thirds of women (65%) say there is a lot of (15%) or some (50%) discrimination against women in our society today. Men, however, are nearly evenly divided: 48% say women face at least some discrimination, while 51% believe there is only a little or no bias against women. This gender gap is evident across generations, with double-digit gaps between Millennial men and women (11 percentage points), Gen X men and women (17 points), Boomer men and women (20 points) and men and women from the Silent generation (21 points) who say women face at least some discrimination.